An introduction to cell specialisation gcse biology revision notes 1. They may infect plants or animals and can be spread by direct contact, by water or by air. You should understand the use of isotonic drinks and high energy drinks in sport.
The spread can be controlled by treatment with antibiotics or the use of a barrier method of contraception such as a condom. HIV is spread by sexual contact or exchange of body fluids such as blood which occurs when drug users share needles.
Be able to explain how electron microscopy has increased understanding of subcellular structures. The left ventricle pumps blood around the rest of the body. Each chromosome carries a large number of genes.
Know and understand that an electron microscope has much higher magnification and resolving power than a light microscope. Rare species can be cloned to protect from extinction. Be able to interpret data about risk factors for specified diseases. Single hybridoma cells are cloned to produce many identical cells that all produce the same antibody.
Uncontaminated cultures of microorganisms are required for investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics.
You should be able to explain how the small intestine and lungs in mammals, gills in fish, and the roots and leaves in plants, are adapted for exchanging materials. Production of poisons to deter herbivores eg tobacco plants, foxgloves and deadly nightshade.
You should be able to recognise and describe situations in given contexts where mitosis is occurring. You do not need to know details of vaccination schedules and side effects associated with specific vaccines.
This helps to prevent false claims. Be able to translate information between graph and numerical form, plot and draw appropriate graphs, selecting appropriate scales for axes and extract and interpret information from graphs, charts and tables. The fungi will increase the oxygen concentration in the greenhouse Fungi in the soil encourage root growth in plants.
Know that traditionally drugs were extracted from plants and microorganisms. You should be able to explain the need for exchange surfaces and a transport system in multicellular organisms in terms of surface area to volume ratio.
The stomach produces acid which kills the majority of pathogens which enter via the mouth. It is spread in the environment by water or wind.
It also allows sugar molecules to be absorbed from lower concentrations in the gut into the blood which has a higher sugar concentration. The effects of smoking and alcohol on unborn babies. Very low doses of the drug are given at the start of the clinical trial.
However, the starting point may still be a chemical extracted from a plant. Know that the role of stomata and guard cells are to control gas exchange and water loss.
Antibiotics, such as penicillin, are medicines that help to cure bacterial disease by killing infective bacteria inside the body. Platelets are fragments of cells which initiate the clotting process at wound sites.
Be able to evaluate the practical risks and benefits, as well as social and ethical issues, of the use of stem cells in medical research and treatments. Plants can be infected by a range of viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens as well as by insects.
Be able to explain how the spread of diseases can be reduced or prevented. Chemical plant defence responses: Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
In body cells the chromosomes are normally found in pairs. Be able to calculate and compare surface area to volume ratios.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane. Malaria causes recurrent episodes of fever and can be fatal.You are required to carry out the following practical as part of the AQA Biology course - it involves investigating the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis using an aquatic organism such as pondweed.
A 4 lesson scheme of work covering the new for AQA GCSE Biology topic Photosynthesis. This makes up half of the bioenergetics unit of work. This scheme covers specification points: (photosynthetic reaction), (rate of pho.
Revise how plants make their own food using photosynthesis for GCSE Biology, AQA. AQA GCSE Biology Coursework? watch. Announcements. So I had the choice of " temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis.", " the amount of co2 " or the amount of light" Official AQA Biology Unit 1 GCSE 5th June NEW SPEC ; see more Related university courses.
Ecology and Conservation Biology. University of Leeds. Visit ultimedescente.com for more fantastic resources. Maths Made Easy © Complete Tuition Ltd ultimedescente.com GCSE Science.
GCSE Biology AQA (Organisation) STUDY. PLAY. Specialised cells. As an organism develops, cells differentiate to form different types of cells.
This is because carbon dioxide is not needed for photosynthesis, so closing stomata reduces water loss. When water is plentiful, guard cells take up water and bend. This causes the stomata to open.Download